Supercharged Jaguar pace car : Dreadnought

XJR

I love the whine of superchargers, from the characteristic howl of the Merlin V12 in an old warbird, to the scream of top fuel drag racer, blowers rock.

Clearly it was time I owned one, and in another dangerous moment of ebay browsing I came across a modestly priced Jaguar XJR, first of the V8 supercharged cars, 1997 vintage.

This model was the first generation of supercharged Jaguar V8's. About 370bhp as standard.
This model was the first generation of supercharged Jaguar V8’s. About 370bhp as standard.

The car looked ideal, sensible mileage, good maintenance, but crucially cosmetically challenged which brings the price down nicely without effecting performance. Also the numberplate was probably worth as much as the car, so in theory I could sell the plate and make most of my money back…

Well, you’ve got to dream.

And in this case my dream was to buy a car cheap, strip out as much weight as I could without actually putting much effort in and then take it racing, or at least a track day or two.

So I did what any sensible and careful car buyer would do, I placed a bid without looking at the car and forgot about it. Oh, hang on, no, that’s the opposite of sensible isn’t it. Yes, often get those two mixed up; sensible / stupid.

The following day I received the email saying I’d got the car, so we had a little road trip to plan. Diana gave me a lift to Kent, just over 100 miles away from home, in her fabulous BMW 840. It was quite a fun road trip, the sun shone, the motoway food was edible, the exhaust roared.

Coming home, Project 8 and the XJR.
Coming home, Project 8 and the XJR.

The guy selling the XJR clearly enjoyed driving the car, judging by the tyre wear, which is as it should be. The car was a little tatty, a few dents, a bit of mould but seemed to be mechanically sound. Our five year old son thought it was lovely and spent a good ten minuets checking out how bouncy every seat was.

Documents were exchanged and off we set back home, but the very first thing to do was put some fuel in, the gauge was right at the bottom. The fuel station was a few miles away so I took it easy, it’s one of the exciting things about buying a second hand car; you don’t know how accurate the gauge is and whether you’re going to run out of fuel before you reach the petrol station, quite a fun game.

Soon the green glow of a fuel station arrived, I pulled in and pressed the button to release the fuel filler flap. Absolutely nothing happened. Yes, unbelievably the electronic flap release system had failed, imagine that, and old car with dodgy electrics, got to be a first…

Now there was quite a queue forming behind me at this busy fuel station, not a huge amount of patience present there at that time, which added nicely to the drama. I opened the boot and ripped the side trim out to expose the release solenoid, bent the bracket out the way and pulled the release mechanism by hand. Sadly no one in the queue seemed to appreciate this and kept scowling pointedly.

Anyway, with a full tank of motorway priced fuel we set off for home. On the slip road onto the motorway I gave it full throttle and the car responded with a very civilised yet substantial flow of thrust. I was quite pleased with this until I looked in the mirror and couldn’t see Diana’s 840, not because it was lagging behind, but because it was completely obscured by the thick smoke that had belched from the XJR exhaust. Hmm…

I knew the previous owner had used the car for short journeys, so there was probably some oil in the intake from condensing crank case vent gas, probably, so the smoke could be from residual oil, maybe, so it could be ok, perhaps, and might just need a good blast to clear it out, hopefully. Only one way to find out, more full throttle.IMAG1157

And sure enough, after a dozen high power blasts it did start to clear. Which was nice.

We made ‘good progress’ on the way home, the lead swapping from 840 to XJR several times, both cars are huge fun to drive but in very different ways. The 840 has a sports exhaust, it barks and growls, the ride is firm yet the steering has only modest feedback, it goes like stink and looks like a rocket ship. By contrast the Jag is near silent, the ride is exceptionally smooth but sharpens up when you throw it some curves due to the two stage dampers, it corners very well, more roll than the 8 but with more feedback in the steering, a gentle giant but the full throttle thrust is substantial and constant as the speed rises. And it has 90bhp more than the 8, but they have similar weights, something in the region of 1800kg.

A scruffy villain, the perfect starting point.
A scruffy villain, the perfect starting point.

The Jag’s interior is lovely, bright leather and dark wood, very comfortable and a pleasant place to be. The only down side is that it will all have to get ripped out as we enter phase two. It does seem a shame to throw all that loveliness away, but to be fair the seats are worn, the headlining held up with lots of tiny pins and the seat belts are mouldy. In fact there is a distinct whiff of mould all round the car and the carpets a slightly moist. Not encouraging.

Once home I gave it a bit more of an inspection, plugged the computer into it’s diagnostic socket and had a rummage about. Turns out the mileage isn’t genuine, this may be because it has had more than one replacement dash units due to the tendency for them to burn out. Not sure what the real mileage is, probably about 160k, not that this matters for this project.

Well, at least it's colorful.
Well, at least it’s colorful.

Then, a few weeks later, I was asked to join the Coventry Motofest team as the Live Action Director, giving me the job of closing the ring road and the largest car park in the city and turning them both into race tracks for the event! This meant two things for the Jag, first I didn’t get to use it much as I was somewhat busy, secondly I decided to use the Jag as the Motofest Pace Car, which is basically a track day car with flashing lights on. Easy.

The Jag is left unused over Christmas, and on returning I find that the whole interior has sprouted a blanket of mould and fungus, the carpets are particularly lively and the seatbelts are now a multi coloured patchwork, I guess there must be a lot of nutrients in 17 years worth of executive belly sweat.

Eventually the sun came out and I set aside one weekend to do the initial strip out. First I set about the boot, obviously the trim had to go but I wasn’t expecting much weight there, but as it turns out there was over 15kg of fluff and rags in there. Then out came the tool kit and spare wheel. Now, the last owner had told me the car had a ‘matching spare wheel’ but seemed a little self conscious when he said it. The reason may have been that the wheel was utterly f##ked, the rim was badly damaged and in some parts it was missing completely, great chunks of aluminium alloy had been ripped off. The tyre had massive cuts in, right down to the cords which were exposed and rusting merrily. I have only ever seen wheels and tyres in this condition in a scrap yard. Which is where I took this one.

'Matching spare wheel', apparently.
‘Matching spare wheel’, apparently.

The strip out continued with some help from my 5 year old son who set about the CD changer with a socket set, good training. In total about 80kg came out of the boot that day.

Next it was the interior’s turn. This had to happen in a set order because the electric sun roof mechanism can only be removed when the front seats are out. And my lord those front seats are heavy, about 40kg each with all the electric motors and air bags etc. Once the front and rear seats were out and scattered on the drive way, Diana observed that they would look really good in the summer house that I hadn’t built yet.

Next the sunroof came out, which is also quite heavy. My initial thought was to use the sunroof outer panel to fill the gap in the roof, just running a bead of weld round it, but even the panel was heavy with strengthening beams in, so I abandoned that idea and riveted in a sheet of ally instead.

I wondered if it was worth taking the center console out, but the race seats would foul against it so out it came. Again I was surprised how heavy this piece of trim is, turns out it is made on a steel shell which seems a bit excessive, it’s not like the trim is structural.

Seats get a new life as furniture.
Seats get a new life as furniture.

Whilst I was on a roll I took out the radio (5kg) and some other bits and bobs which all added up. In total I took out about 250kg from the interior!

The seating posed an interesting challenge, I needed something supportive and tall for me, most race seats are too short in the back for me, but as this was going to be the Pace Car I needed a passenger seat that could accommodate a variety of body shapes. Corbeau stepped up to the challenge and supplied two ex-display seats. I bolted the passenger seat directly to the floor, fairly well back much as they do in real rally cars, I then bolted the drivers seat to the original jag seat frame to give it a little more height and make it adjustable.

Work in progress.
Work in progress.

I bought a 6 point race harness from Sabelt for me, somewhat overkill but it looks nice…

The passenger gets a four point supplied by the most excellent Matt Philips of Retro Warwick fame. The shoulder straps bolted onto the original seat belt mounting points on the rear bulkhead, but the lap belts needed a few holes drilling in the floor pan and some large spreader plates. All the seat and belt mounting was made a little more challenging by the fact that the floor under the seats is double skinned with an upper panel that slopes downward to the rear.

Getting things in just the right place to suit my lanky body.
Getting things in just the right place to suit my lanky body.

Now, because I have no money the plan was to leave the suspension and brakes standard, after all it already handles well and with the weight loss the brakes should be more than adequate. OK so it’s a fairly dodgy theory, but when you’re skint it makes sense. Of course this does mean that with the weight loss the car will be sitting pretty high on it’s springs, which would look silly, so I had a cunning plan. If you search the web for ‘Dakar Jaguar XJ’ you will see loads of rather fabulous pictures of an old Series 3 XJ hammering through the desert rally, quite inspiring. And of course it had raised suspension…

So all I needed to do was fit bigger tyres and I had an extremely unsuitable rally car! OK, so there’s a hell of a lot more to making a rally car than that, but this is just a bit of fun so I am quite happy to gloss over all those pesky details.

Although the car came to me with 18″ wheels, the choice of off road tyres is greater for the optional 16″ wheels, so I picked up a tidy set off ebay for next to nothing and set about acquiring a nice set of All Terrain tyres from our friends at Falken. I’d measured the wheel arch clearance and found that I could just about get away with 30″ diameter tyres if I made some subtle bodywork modifications with a big hammer. This compares to the standard tyres of 26” diameter, raising the car by a further 2” and filling the arches rather nicely.

Now that's chunky. Let's off road...
Now that’s chunky. Let’s off road…

It would still be a bit tight near the bulkhead, so just in case I also ordered a set of road tyres for the 18″ wheels, just an inch bigger than standard.

Then I hit an annoying problem, the original wheels wouldn’t come off! I tried encouraging them off with a big rubber hammer, with pry bars, soaking in WD40 for a week and even driving the car up and down a private road with the wheel nuts loose. It took a whole day to get the wheels off! All because who ever had fitted them hadn’t lubricated the mating faces, such a simple piece of maintenance, why do people skip it?

So, with one side on jacks I finally got to offer up the monster tyre to the front wheel arch, and sure enough it fouls on the front end of the sill quite hard, but luckily the sill extends quite a few inches in front of the bulkhead, meaning that the leading section adds nothing to the car’;s strength and is there merely to support the front wing. So I trimmed it back to the bulkhead, and in so doing successfully located the rust! The inner side of the sill was heavily corroded at the front end, additionally where the footwell met the sill there was a thin line of rust. Not ideal, but on the other hand it doesn’t make a huge difference to the vehicle’s strength. If the rust had been a bit further back, under the A pillar for instance, then it would be a different story, luckily that area was solid.

Also the wheel arch rim was in the wrong place and the lip just touched the tyre, with with some gentle persuasion with a big hammer the arch flared out nicely. It’s quite subtle but the top of the arch is an inch further outboard than standard. The rear edge of the front arches were unfortunately rotten, bit of a lace effect. To make it look a little bit less terrible I covered that bit in tank tape, which made it look just as terrible but now it looked like I was trying to hide something.

So now I had the wheels on, seats and harnesses in and a not leaking roof. Clearly time for a test drive! Pulling out of the first T junction onto the main road the weight loss was immediately apparent, the thrust was significantly higher despite the taller gearing from the monster tyres. It was obviously louder in the cabin without the sound deadening, but still civilized, which would prove vital at Motofest when using all the radio communications kit on the track. Going into a swift corner revealed that the chunky off road tyres tended to drift significantly, as expected, in a rather entertaining sort of way. But the tyres and the ground clearance mean that this venerable old Jag can clip apexes onto grass verges on a race track should the need arise, in fact it could probably drive straight through gravel traps!

An unexpected benefit is that parking and manoeuvring is easier as now it can drive over curbs.

I rather like that, maybe I should have left it at that?
I rather like that, maybe I should have left it at that?

Returning home the steering became heavy, and a pool of steering fluid on the drive indicated that the power steering cooler hose had burst somewhere inconvenient. The leak was from the union under the air filter in the front drivers side of the engine bay. The air filter was covered in steering oil which had sprayed up through a large hole in the airbox, the hole was caused by the mounting lug being ripped out, clearly something had been going on here. Further stripping revealed the car had had a frontal impact in it’s past, it had been pulled straight and a new front right wing fitted, although solid it was a cheap repair, with damage to the fog light and indicator wiring as well as the fore mentioned steering cooler. I had to take out the whole radiator pack, intake and chin spoiler to get it fixed. Whilst there I replaced the front drive belt and a couple of pulleys that were starting to make noise, I removed the air conditioning radiator and some other bits it no longer needed. I also left the lower headlight trims off, because I think it looks better without them. In fact it look quite good with no grill either, but then it looks somehow less Jaguar.

At this stage it needed a name, so I asked the Twitter and Facebook community for ideas, based on the car’s ability to push on through poor road surfaces with unreasonable haste. One suggestion caught my imagination; Dreadnought. Dreadnought was a class of battle ship from about a hundred years ago, it was more heavily armoured and faster than previous ships, and although that class of ship saw action the original Dreadnought itself was never used in a real battle. In other words it was heavy, fast and looked the part but was never tested in combat. My jag is heavy, fast and although it looks like a rally car it will never be in a real race.

It also fits into my ship based race car theme, as my last race car was a Jaguar XJ-S V12 called the ‘Black Pearl’ (see previous post for details).

In time honored tradition all the work was finished at the last minuet, and I drove up to Coventry the week of Motofest with several more things still to do. As I set off, driving round the lanes of Cambridgeshire was an absolute joy, then it was onto the A14 and M6 for the 60 mile trip to Cov, this all passed pleasantly enough but just as I slowed for the exit junction to Coventry a helpful warning light pinged onto the dash telling me the gearbox was unhappy, and suddenly I only had one gear, third! The symptoms pointed to gearbox fluid loss, I limped it very gently back to a friend’s house in Coventry where I could test it, Nick is used to race machinery as he races in the British Cross Country Championship in a car called Insanity 2. Cunningly there is no dip stick on the XJR’s Mercedes gearbox, although one can be purchased. I used a bit of wire and found that the sump was all but dry, fluid had been squirting out from a fluid connection on the radiator pack, a quick investigation revealed there was no O ring in the joint any more! By an utterly bizarre coincidence Nick had an old Jaguar X308 radiator pack in the shed that he was thinking of adapting to use on his Land Rover, even more bizarrely it still had an O ring in the hole where the fluid pipe goes! What are the chances of that?

Of course I also needed quite a lot of transmission fluid, now these boxes use a specific synthetic oil that can be tricky to get hold of. Luckily another chum, Franc the guru of Land Rover engines, happened to have a few spare bottles because his Jag also used the same fluid. Another bizarre coincidence.

Yes, I'm rubbish at adding large stickers.
Yes, I’m rubbish at adding large stickers.

With that all sorted it was time to fit the all important stickers, the most important one being the Pace Car and Motofest ones that had been cut specially for me by Nathan Ward of Golden Bull Racing fame. There is an art to applying large stickers without getting creases and bubbles in, you apply soapy water first and squeegee it out from the middle, using a heat gun to get it to flow to the curves of the car. As you can see I am rubbish at this and should have left it to the professionals. This is made more embarrassing by the fact that some of the stickers are from Missions Motorsport, the forces charity that uses motorsport to rehabilitate injured soldiers and who also run a very successful graphics course, they trained guys who now fit the graphics onto Formula 1 cars. They would also be at Motofest training volunteers how to do a few stunt driving manoeuvres, so they’d see what a mess I made of the graphics on Dreadnought. And yes, they did verily take the piss.

I also had to wire in the amber flashing lights kindly supplied by Jon Fry of Northants 4×4 club. He is a rally marshal and would bring his Discovery as the course closing car, more of that later…

All in a rush the big day of Motofest arrived, I’d been working past midnight for weeks and was up until 2am rewriting the running order. After a quick sleep I was up at 6am to check the road closure was going to plan, driving Dreadnought through the deserted city streets felt like the beginning of some cult film, I had the windows open to hear the supercharger whine and the drone of the tyres more clearly. It felt good.

Coventry Motofest Pace car, and John's Discovery in the background.
Coventry Motofest Pace car, and John’s Discovery in the background.

Soon participants started to arrive, by 9.30 we had a closed road, I’d done the driver briefing and Darren of Destination Nurburgring fame was doing the signing on. The radio coms truck was set up, we had radios in all the control cars and we had teams on the entrances and exits controlling traffic. Time to deploy the marshal teams, leading the convoy of Land Rovers in Dreadnought round the deserted ring road was an interesting moment, this was the beginning of something special. We started the event with a few parade laps of classic and performance cars, sticking to 40mph and waiving to the small crowds building at the spectator points. I was at the front in Dreadnought and Jon was at the back in his Discovery 1 Tdi, that way we made sure no one went the wrong way or got left behind. In the afternoon we picked up the pace, with race cars running at higher speeds, demonstrating a small amount of their capability. Dreadnought coped with high speed cornering beautifully, drifting very controllably. Jon’s Discovery however may have not been quite so used to high speed cornering, but it kept up…

One memory will stick with me for a very long time, seeing an ex-BTCC Rover SD1 V8 in a long line of very fast race cars in my rear view mirror as I glided Dreadnought through the roundabout on junction 1, the crowd cheering and taking pictures.

Picture by Lewis Craik
Picture by Lewis Craik

In all Dreadnought put in 107 faultless miles hacking round the ring road that day. What a day.

Then it was a return to more mundane duties, for the next week I commuted to work in it, the only down side being that the wings on the race seat make side viability at T junctions a little tricky, that and the lack of air conditioning on a hot summers day.

home

Since then it has been used for some local trips and also appeared at Kimbolton Fayre along side Diana’s fabulous BMW 840, the fayre is the largest charity classic in the East, apparently, with over 800 classic and performance cars, well worth a visit.

In stately company at Kimbolton Fayre.
In stately company at Kimbolton Fayre.

We also took it to Santa Pod for a RWYB day, it managed a 13.8 second standing quarter mile with a speed of just over 100mph. Not bad for an ebay special!

Drag racing on AT tyres is ace!
Drag racing on AT tyres is ace!

So, mission accomplished. Dreadnought had a month and a bit of MOT left and so I put it up for sale in August 2014, it went to a new home at an Oxfordshire racing company where I’m sure it will continue to make people smile.

Links:

Franc http://www.stunnedbuffalo.com/

Insanity 2 https://www.facebook.com/pages/Insanity-Racing/1426875627586031

Corbeau http://www.corbeau-seats.com/

Falken http://www.falkentyres-uk.com/

Coventry Motofest http://coventrymotofest.com/

Retro Warwick http://www.retrowarwick.co.uk/

Golden Bull Racing http://goldenbullracing.webs.com/

Destination Nurburgring http://www.destination-nurburgring.com/

Kimbolton Fayre http://kimboltoncountryfayre.com/

Lewis Craik http://blog.lewiscraik.co.uk/2014/06/02/coventry-motofest/

McLaren MP4-12C

It goes quite well, as you might expect.

But there is so much more to this car than just speed. The gear changes are all but instant, helped by the very low inertia engine which makes down shifts as fast as up shifts. In fact it’s so fast I can actually play a tune by shifting gears rapidly, not a very good tune, but a tune none the less. The ease of shifting compels me to

A selection of MP4-12Cs, closest we have the open top, in the middle is the racing GT, and at the back is the coupe.
A selection of MP4-12Cs, closest we have the open top, in the middle is the racing GT, and at the back is the coupe.

continually change gear as I drive round the high speed test route, each shift commanded by a simple flick of the very well placed steering wheel paddles, left for down shift, right for up. It’s simple, intuitive and works fantastically well.

Not that it really needs to, the torque curve from the engine is indecently flat, pulling as strongly at low revs as it does near the ear splitting red line. 600Nm from 3000rpm to 7000rpm from the 3.8 litre V8, which is more than respectable in a sub 1400kg car.

This makes it very easy to drive, any gear will do for normal driving, and the flexibility of the engine is matched by the suppleness of the suspension. It’s undoubtedly a

Uncluttered dash, all controls to hand nicely.
Uncluttered dash, all controls to hand nicely.

supercar, but it doesn’t knock your teeth out with a bone crunchingly harsh ride, ok it’s a bit firm in ‘Normal’ mode but perfectly acceptable and makes long journeys a completely reasonable proposition. Even getting in and out is made easy by the wide aperture and decent leg room, unlike many other supercars. In fact the whole cabin is an ergonomic triumph, everything you need is where you need it. The seats are comfy but supportive and can be adjusted for a diverse range of body shapes because they contain a number of inflatable bags which you can set to suit yourself. The controls are very well placed and everything the driver could need falls nicely to hand. The rear view over the transparent engine cover is a little narrow but perfectly usable.

Transparent cover displays the 3.8 twin turbo V8.
Transparent cover displays the 3.8 twin turbo V8.

And that cover lets you see the throbbing heart of this magnificent creation: a twin turbo V8 that at low speeds makes an exhaust not reminiscent of might Deltic locomotives, the throbbing engine complemented by the whistle of turbines, but once up to speed make a screaming soundtrack that lets you know that the manufacturer learnt its craft on race tracks.

You might think a transparent engine cover is a little exhibitionist, but why not show such beautiful craftsmanship? After all, this car is street theatre, just like any other supercar it’s more art than transport, you buy it because you want it not because you need it. But this piece of art is more subtle than many of its competitors, the lines are uncluttered and have a beautiful simplicity that doesn’t need to be decked with multi stage wings and complex splitters to work.

Simple elegant lines, a pretty car.
Simple elegant lines, a pretty car.

This is a testament to the skill and experience of McLaren aerodynamics engineers, they are arguably the best in the business and have made a shape that inherently works. The rear wing is an inherent part of the rear design, not just bolted on. Not only that but they have added a few features so that the downforce and drag can change to suit your driving mood. There is a button that provoke active aero, a rear spoiler popping up under heavy braking to give greater traction and also work as an air brake, something they first tried on their mighty Mercedes SLR.

Yes it has a rear wing, but its a beautifully integrated part of the design.
Yes it has a rear wing, but its a beautifully integrated part of the design.

Mood control extends further, there are two rotary switches to set up the car for your chosen task, each has three settings: Normal, Sport and Track. On the right we have Powertrain control which adjusts the way power is delivered, more instant and aggressive for track, more gentle and progressive for road. It also sets the gearbox up for fast hard shifts on track and soft comfy shifts on road. On the left we have the Handling control which adjusts damper firmness and the effect of the active roll control.

This is all the adjustment you could need, if you want a fast blast on rough country roads then leave the suspension on Normal and switch the powertrain to Track, there are sufficient options to tailor the car to your preferences. I like that, it’s flexible, effective and simple.

Race car interior is also nicely laid out, note the gratifyingly wide front tyre.
Race car interior is also nicely laid out, note the gratifyingly wide front tyre.

Driving the car is a joy, the soundtrack from the engine is delightful and only intrusive when you’re going a bit too fast for the road anyway, drive within reason and you could sit here comfortably all day.

But get on a smooth track and twist the controls to 11 and this car will throw you at the horizon with indecent haste.

Road car is only one step away from this GT racer.
Road car is only one step away from this GT racer.

But if that is not enough for you, there are special track and race versions too, the CanAm harking back to Bruce McLaren’s racing heyday, and the GT picking up where the old F1 LeMans cars left off.

So underneath this fine road car is clearly the heart of a race car. It really can deliver, it’s not just some pretty boy wanna be, it’s well though out proper engineering. Hugely competent without shouting about it, very British in a way.

In summary, I like it, quite a lot.

 

Drivetrain Layout: Longitudinal Mid-Engine, RWD

Body Structure: Carbon Fibre MonoCell with Aluminium Front and Rear Frames

Suspension: Double wishbone all round with ProActive Chassis Control

Active Aerodynamics: McLaren Airbrake

Transmission: 7 Speed SSG

Engine Configuration: V8 Twin Turbo / 3799cc

PS / rpm: 625 / 7500

Torque Nm / rpm: 600 / 3000 – 7000

Brakes: Cast Iron Discs with Forged Aluminium Hubs (F 370mm/ R 350mm)

Length (mm): 4509

Track, F/R (mm): 1656 / 1583

Width (mm): 1908

Height (mm): 1199

Wheelbase (mm): 2670

Dry Weight (kg / lbs): 1336 / 2945

Tyres (F/R)

Pirelli P Zero 235/35 R19 /
Pirelli P Zero 305/30 R20

Wheel Sizes (F/R): 19” x 8.5”J / 20” x 11” J

McLaren really do make damn good cars.
McLaren really do make damn good cars.

More info (and much better pictures!) can be found here:

http://media.mclarenautomotive.com/model/1/

The truth about electric cars

Or at least the truth from an engineering perspective. And that is an important distinction because of course the main catalyst for the change is political, there may be some very fine environmental and technical reasons for the change too, but politics holds all the aces. It can make oil prices prohibitive, it can subsidise new technologies that herald breakthrough innovations.
You see, every life changing new technology had to start somewhere, it usually starts off prohibitively expensive and a bit unreliable. Just think about those early mobile phones the size of a suitcase with a battery life of only a few minuets and call costs a hundred times greater than a normal land line. Or even the first computers, the size of a large room and less brains than a digital watch. The format is well established; pour loads of funding into research, laugh at boffins making experimental machines with questionable ability, wait for a company to spot the potential, get it into production and within ten years every competitor is developing better versions.

Rolls Royce are leading the charge (pardon the pun) in ultra luxury electric vehicles.

But electric cars are a bit of an exception because at the dawn of motoring they were a front runner, even Porche’s first car was electric. 130 years ago petrol was not readily available, you bought it in cans for quite a lot of money, car journeys were very short and cars were so expensive that only those with a large estate could afford one. Electric cars had the advantage over those first fledgling petrol cars in many ways, they were faster, quieter, much more reliable and had no starting problems. They didn’t even need a gearbox or clutch mechanism, so driving them was a far simpler affair than a crash box piston powered chariot.
But the materials technology needed to advance battery design was simply not there, the early EV hit a performance limit that it couldn’t break free from. The second problem was in motor control, all they had was switches, and as motors became more powerful the need for fine control at low speed became more problematic.
By comparison funding poured into petrol engine design, at that time it was far easier to improve than electric cars and oil companies were understandably keen to see this new product thrive. A couple of world wars forced engine design ahead very rapidly, not least to power aircraft from the humble Tiger Moth to the magnificent Spitfire.
Very rapidly it became far easier to make a high power, low cost petrol engine, opening up the possibility of cheap mass market motor cars.
Electric vehicles didn’t stand a chance. Half a century ago there was simply no reason to invest in electric vehicle research, emissions concerns had not yet manifested, climate change was unheard of and oil supplies were plentiful. A few enthusiasts continued to attempt to make electric vehicles, enjoying their simplicity and quietness, but materials technology would still limit their capability.
But times change, and now with political difficulties in oil supply, a far greater and ever developing understanding of emissions problems and climate change, coupled with massive advancements in technology there is an overwhelming desire to find alternatives to petrol and diesel.
This means that funding is now pouring into research in electric vehicles. But as mentioned above this is merely the first stage in a product becoming a commercial success, early adopters such as Honda with the Insight and more recently Toyota with the Prius have been suffering the commercial pain of subsidising less than ideal technology, but remember this is another essential stage in a technology’s development.
I hope that gives you an idea of where we are; about half way to getting a really useful, cheap and effective electric vehicle. There is now sufficient funding from a sufficiently large range of institutions, governments and corporations that the rest of the development process is pretty much inevitable, after all they all want to see a return on their investments.
Of course electric cars are not the only option for reducing CO2, existing piston engines could be re-engineered to run on hydrogen, and that fuel could be obtained by electrolysis of water. Storing hydrogen is a bit tricky unfortunately, but there are some exciting new developments that could make it a viable option. This has the advantage of using existing engine technology, but introduces large inefficiencies due to the process of hydrogen manufacture, its transport and the low efficiency of the internal combustion engine. You’d be lucky to turn 15% of the electrical energy used in hydrogen production into energy at the car’s wheels. and as ever you loose all that energy as soon as you apply the brakes.
The observant amongst you will know that lost energy from braking could be recovered by hooking up generators to the wheels and using the recovered energy to power the wheels on the next acceleration, as in KERS and other regenerative brake systems, but then you are carrying part of the weight and financial burden of the electric car but without all the benefit.
When you consider the total path from the source to the wheel the electric car can work out significantly better, potentially getting 50% of the source energy to the car wheels.
The other interesting possibility is gaining some, or possibly all, of the electricity from solar cells built into the car body. Various companies are developing composite body panels and special paints that act as solar panels that can be unobtrusively incorporated into the car design. In the UK the average energy from the sun through our legendary gloomy cloud is enough to power a small family car for about ten miles each day, so if all the car does is the school run and weekly shop then there could potentially be no fuel cost. Although as ever with new technology the first cars to have this feature will be hideously expensive and totally negate this benefit, but in time it will become a viable option.
Emissions are not the only reason for going electric, as the technology matures and becomes cheaper it will eventually become far cheaper to make an electric car than a combustion engined one. On a modern small car the engine and associated emissions systems can easily cost more than the rest of the entire car, getting this cost down is a huge incentive to car companies that struggle to make a profit at the best of times. in fact car companies have been trying to get up into electric cars for decades, remember the Ford Think?
There are many other benefits too, electric drives lend themselves to the ever increasing demands of advanced traction and stability control systems. As driver aids such as auto parking gradually evolve into fully autonomous self driving cars, having a simple method of accurately controlling the torque at each wheel becomes increasingly important.
When you put all these factors together the case for electric vehicles becomes compelling, and when you add in the political desire to reduce dependence on unstable oil producing countries the argument becomes overwhelming.
Obviously we are not quite there yet, historically the big problem has always been the battery. Old methods resulted in heavy, expensive and physically large units with limited range, they haven’t really changed in over a century. But in the last ten years or so there has been renewed investment, finally, and whilst there is still a long way to go we are definitely on the road to success already.
In fact as the ‘power density’ of batteries improves, eventually it will exceed that of petrol. This means that eventually electric cars will be lighter for the same power when compared to a petrol or diesel car, or more interesting to a racer like me, an electric car will be more powerful for the same weight. Imagine massively powerful electric supercars with precise control of the torque at each wheel from its four wheel motors, the ultimate in performance. The future world of electric vehicles is a very exciting place.
So there it is, electric cars offer huge benefits to the environment, car companies, drivers and world politics. They are not perfect yet, but within a decade or two they will be as ubiquitous as mobile phones.
And yes, before you ask, I still prefer the sound of a V8. But as long as the car accelerates as if it had one then maybe I could cope, after all we can always simulate the sound!

For more news about electric cars why not follow Robert Llewellyn, a superb ambassador for the EV revolution:bobbyllew

And you must follow Jonny Smith and his fabulous drag racing electric car ‘Flux Capacitor’: Carpervert

The genesis of the Jaguar V8

There was a time when ‘Jaguar’ and ‘V8’ could not be uttered in the same breath, which is odd when you consider the majesty of the Daimler 2.5 and 4.5 V8s used since the ’60s.

But by the end of the ’80s it was becoming clear that the weight of the gorgeous Jaguar

Potent as the V12 was, it weighs about 350kg on its own! As I found out when I built this XJ-S...

V12 was just too much, plus its enormous physical size was hampering car design, particularly for crash performance where you need some crumple zone rather than solid engine. The engine was revolutionary in the ’70s, but in the ’80s the labour intensive assembly and expensive parts was costing the company more than it was making. For the last years of the XJS the V12 was not even on the official brochures, it was only its legend that was keeping sales alive.

The AJ6 and AJ16 6 cylinder engines were making almost the same power and saved about 120kg which made a huge difference to the cars handling. But even this engine was showing its age.

New shorter engines were needed in order to allow sufficient room for an effective crumple zone. The engines needed to warm up more quickly, for both customer comfort and the ever tightening emissions regulations. This needs more precise cooling in the heads and block plus the use of considerably less metal. The piston ring system needed to control the oil much more accurately and piston friction had to be lowered. Indeed, friction throughout the engine needed to be reduced to meet the fuel economy and emissions targets.

With these issues in mind, a number of alternatives were looked at in the late ’80s, including a V12 derived V6 with the lost power being returned by using a brace of turbos. Another V6, an Orbital 2 stroke engine which gave the same number of power strokes per rev as the old V12 engine, was looked at but oil control and refinement never quite met the targets. They even looked at a number of engines from other companies, which could be bought in without the huge cost of developing their own engine.

During the dreaded BL days there had been some discussion of using the Buick derived Rover V8, which had substantial advantages in terms of weight (in fact it weighed half as much as the V12), cost and size. Unfortunately, most of the advantage came from the fact that it was relatively thin walled and so suffered in refinement a little. But in reality this could have been developed out, as was the case in the final fling of the Rover V8 inside the P38a Range Rovers.

But that venerable V8 was itself a relic of the ’60s and ultimately suffered from the same issues as the old Jaguar engines, in terms of efficiency and emissions. It also struggled to meet the power demands of modern cars, the 4.6 version only putting out 220bhp.

So the bold decision was made to design a completely new Jaguar engine, one that would meet the forthcoming challenges of regulations and customer expectations. Originally code named the AJ12, the project used a single cylinder research engine to examine a number of different combustion chamber, cylinder head/ port and cam options. This data showed that a 500cc cylinder with 26 degree ports and a four valve configuration gave the best economy and performance for Jaguar applications.

Although AJ12 never resulted in a physical engine, the data was used to study a modular engine design concept, concentrating on a 4 litre 8 cylinder and a 3 litre 6cyl, but also looking at a 2 litre 4 cylinder, a 5 litre 10 cylinder and a 6 litre 12 cylinder engine. This would require some rather sophisticated machinery to be able to make all those variants, sharing common components such as piston and valves but little else. As the analysis data grew, it became clear that the complexity of doing all those variants would be crippling, so it was decided to concentrate on 6, 8 and 12 cylinder V engines. Thus the project now became known as AJ26, 26 being the sum of 6, 8 and 12.

The Jaguar V8 would also make a damn fine race engine...

 

But this would be hugely expensive, the fuel bill alone for testing engines runs into millions of pounds per year. At this time Jaguar was privately owned and as such there was simply not enough spare cash to invest in new products. What was needed was an owner who could suffer the financial hit in the long period between investment and return.

When Ford became interested in buying Jaguar, it was only natural to see if one of their many engines would fit the bill. Indeed it was not uncommon for Jaguar owners in the USA to retro fit a Yank V8 so there was some precedence for this already.

But work had already started on the fledgling Jaguar V8 and the Whitley team, lead by Dave Szczupak, were passionate about seeing it through, they had looked at all the requirements and designed something that would give the legendary levels of Jaguar refinement and power whilst being small, light and efficient. But there would be a long road to go, from a concept to a fully customer ready production engine. Typically it takes around 7 years, that’s a long time to ask an investor to wait for a return.

Ford looked at the arguments for both Ford engines and for the new Jaguar engines, after all the data was analysed and the requirements understood, they decided to invest the millions needed by Jaguar to make their own new engine. But this would be dedicated tooling for just the V8, all other variants were not to be.

The first year had been largely given over to defining the requirements, the specifications for each part of the engine such as how much heat goes into the coolant and the oil, how much force is needed to turn the engine over, valve train stiffness, noise levels as well as the major things like the power and torque levels.

This had lead to the basic design, this was put into the new computers and virtual tests run to establish the best coolant flow paths, the best inlet and exhaust port shape, the cam profiles and the such. A huge amount of data was produced and analysed, without making a single engine. Somewhat different to the early days of the V12 when development was a matter of calculated guess work and then lots of test engines trying it all out.

The calculation gave most of the answers, but some elements still required real world testing. To this end some elements of the new engine were experimented on in isolation, using a current production ‘slave’ engine as a base, giving rise to some odd reports in the press of the new engine being based on this that and the other engine. For example, in order to try different bore and stroke combinations on the single cylinder rig, the engineers looked about for existing parts from all sorts of manufacturers, at one point it was using a Peugeot piston and a Mazda con rod!

The first V8 engines were run on test beds in late ’89 and the first car to receive one was an XJ-S, one of the cars that had just finished being used to evaluate the twin turbo AJ16 in fact. As is always the way with the first ever engine installation, nothing fits, mounts, hoses, air intake and exhaust manifolds all had to be fabricated for the job. Steve, one of the mechanics on the job, recalls ‘they gave me a bag full of exhaust tube and various bends and told me to get on with it’. At the end of ’90, after a couple of weeks of trial and error fitting work the first 4 litre V8 Jag burbled into life and was universally admired by the small select audience of management privileged enough to see it, particularly in America which was a crucial market.

It weighed about the same as the old 6 cyl but had more power and a greater spread of torque, thanks to the new variable cam timing system. But there was a small problem, it didn’t sound like a ‘Jaguar’. Although very appealing, the V8 burble sounded like any normal mid size car in the USA and part of the Jaguar magic was the very high levels of refinement and quietness. Sound is such an emotive thing and much debate was had as to what the new engine should sound like, eventually the decision was made to make it quiet and an enormous amount of work went into designing complex intake and exhaust systems. It is interesting to note how this has changed now such that the current XKR even has a device built into the bulkhead to help you hear the engines magnificent growl.

The first car I drove with the new V8 was an XJ40 in about ’93 at the Ford research centre in Dunton, Essex. The car was based on the XJ12 body, code namedXJ81, which had completely new metal work in front of the bulkhead in order to accept a V engine. This car was bristling with new technology, it had one of the first electronic throttle systems and this particular car had a manual gearbox but with an automatic clutch. As you shifted gear the systems would move the throttle and clutch so as to give you smooth gear shifts. It was marvellous to drive but ultimately it was easier to just use one of the excellent ZF 5 speed auto gearboxes instead.

Its interesting to note how Jaguar has had a history of technological innovation, and how right from the start Jaguar was showing Ford new things. In return Ford showed Jaguar how to massively improve production processes, improving quality and reducing costs. This relationship is continuing to this day, I am pleased to say, with both sides benefiting.

As the engine developed, the early tunes were used to check and refine the basic performance and emissions characteristics. Then cars were used to tune the transient response, that is to say how the engine responds to acceleration, deceleration and gear shifts. This is always a very difficult balance between good drivability and good emissions, a slightly rich fuelling on acceleration give very good drivability but will fail emission completely on hydrocarbons alone.

The new XK was launched with the revised 4.2 V8, a swansong for the first generation V8.

 

Part of the solution was to ensure the automatic gearbox control system ‘talked’ to the engine control system. This kept the throttle, fuel and spark precisely in tune with the change in engine speed during the shift, allowing the engine to anticipate the changes rather than have to react to them after the fact.

After the engine had received a good stable tune, it was time to test it in all the harsh climates it would face in the real world. Traditionally this involves driving it in the Arctic and in the deserts of Arizona or Africa. But now tests could also be done in Fords climatic test chambers which drastically cuts down the development time and expense. As well as cold and hot climate tests, the new cars had to be tested in extremes of damp to check the corrosion resistance of the components and all the wiring. Then there is the rough road testing, both on specially prepared test track with a range of harsh surfaces, and on shake rigs where computer controlled hydraulic rams try to shake the car to pieces. In short, a lifetime of use and abuse is concentrated into a matter of months. By the end of ’94 a huge amount of data had been produced and all the necessary changes had been made, the results were looking very good indeed.

After this year of climate and durability tests, the final tweaks could be made and then it was time to start running the cars at government approved test centres to get the various certifications needed to sell a new car. At the same time further tests were re-run in house just to confirm that the final version was working as expected.

In parallel to all this development, the production plant was tooling up. First prototype tooling is made and the whole assembly process is tested, any special tools or assembly methods are identified and the first set of workers are trained. The first few test cars were built this way, as were the cars eventually used for the journalists to drive at the launch in ‘95.

The cost of production tooling is huge, the Bridgend AJV8 plant cost Ford £125 million. So it was vital to be certain that everything was right before the orders were placed, this could only happen when all the test data was in and all the tweaks had been tested. This is still true today and is one of the reasons it takes so long to get a new idea into production.

Land Rover with Jaguar V8 power, a rather good combination in my opinion.

 

So, in ’96, seven years after the project started, the first XK8s were sold with the all new, entirely Jaguar, V8 engines. A new era had begun.

The original 4.0 litre V8 went through many detail revisions, and endured the dreded Nickasil debarkle that struck many alluminium bored engines of that era. All the lessons learnt were rolled out together in the later 4.2 litre version of the engine, this unit has a reputation for toughness as well as performance and has been raced with some success too. When Land Rover joined the group it was a natural choice to replace the less than reliable BMW V8 with the trusty and powerfull Jaguar unit. In Discovery it was stretched to 4.4 litres in naturally aspirated form but was left at 4.2 for the supercharged variant, 400bhp seemed perfectly sufficient for a Range Rover back then…..

As with all technology in this rapidly changing modern world, eventually it needed a rethink to regain ground lost to competitors who had brought out engines with the latest innovations. The very name ‘Jaguar’ conjures thoughts of tradition and heritage, but it is easy to forget that a fundamental part of that tradition and heritage is innovation; pushing the boundaries back and surprising the car-buying public. In the 70s and 80s, arguably they made the world’s only mass production V12, and at its launch the XJ6 set new standards in refinement and performance coupled with superb looks and all at a very reasonable price. And whatever you may personally think of the XJ-S, it was a very bold move and still has a very strong following.

The all new AJ-V8 GenIII five litre V8 engine demonstrates the continuation of that innovative tradition, capable of delivering over 500 bhp in a selection of very civilised luxurious cars. And as a demonstration of the engine’s strength, a basically standard engine, a tad over-boosted in a slightly modified XF-R was driven at 225.6 mph on the iconic Bonneville salt flats, faster than the XJ220 super car.

It is interesting to draw a comparison with the magnificent old Jaguar V12, intended to provide approximately 20% greater performance than the 4.2 XK six cylinder engine of the time.

In a similar way, the new AJ-V8 5 litre replaces the 4.2 V8, and pushes power levels up by similar amounts; from 420 to 510 bhp for the R version. However, some things are radically different this time round; the new larger engine manages the rather impressive trick of being significantly more economical than the engine it replaces. An astonishing achievement but absolutely essential in today’s, also radically different, environment.

The V12 was also very advanced for a road car engine at the time, in both its concept and manufacture; it was all alloy and designed for fuel injection from the outset, although they were forced to run carburettors temporarily on the E Type. By comparison the new V8 also uses the latest materials and sports an advanced fuel injection system which heavily influenced the engine design, specifically the cylinder heads with a central fuel injector in each combustion chamber.

From E Type to XJ supercharged 5.0 V8, innovation lives on.

 

The injection concept was proved out before any prototypes were made, on a highly modified current production engine taken out to 4.5 litres. The first real prototype engines were created in 2004 and were immediately and relentlessly tested in engine dynamometers, where each engine can be tested in isolation under precisely controlled conditions. Some engines did specific tests such as trying to deliberately foul the spark plugs, or push the performance limits, and others were run on durability cycles designed to stress components to the max, many a time I walked past a test cell where the exhaust manifolds were glowing bright orange as an engine was run at full tilt.

It is of course the people that really make a company, such as the crack team of expert technicians who build and prepare engines ready for testing, often covered with so much complex test equipment that the engine is totally obscured. Or the chaps in the dedicated powertrain machine shop, a small room packed with tools to weld, cut and machine almost any component, often at short notice, using a mix of the ultra new and the traditional techniques that have served Jaguar engine development for many decades. Research by its very nature involves the unforeseen and as a team, their resourcefulness and creativity has saved many a day. It is the talents of dedicated people like this that form the ‘DNA’ of the company.

After initial assessment of the engines, it soon became clear that the naturally aspirated version would meet its performance targets with ease, something that is quite rare in the rest of the car industry, and the supercharged version could exceed expectations without effort so the original power target was raised from 500 to 510 bhp.

The first car I drove with a prototype engine, in 2007, was one of the first engineering ‘hacks’ and so the engine tune was still splendidly raw. It is from this point that skilled engineers start refining the car’s response, making the car do what the driver wants rather than just reacting to crude mechanical inputs. Before work could begin, this particular car had to be driven from Gaydon, where it had been assembled, to Whitley for testing. As I was making that journey myself I volunteered to take the test car, unfortunately it was pouring with rain and as yet there was no traction control – this lead to a few moments of unintentional entertainment and a degree of sideways progress, but even at that embryonic stage it was still a wonderful car to drive.

Indeed it is an essential part of the vehicle’s development to test drive in every type of likely environment so that the design can be finalised before test cars are sent for official emissions certification all over the world. So cars are out and about with disguise kits on years before launch, trying to avoid the hoards of press photographers camped out in the hedges near the factory. Whenever ‘spy shots’ of a new car are printed, it’s standard practice to work out who was driving and then mock them mercilessly, although sometimes it can land the driver in real trouble if more is revealed than is wise.

As ever, refinement is an essential Jaguar characteristic and this has been achieved by ensuring the moving parts are perfectly balanced in the traditional manner, but also with the new Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) system, where the fuel is forced directly into the combustion chamber at very high pressure. It controls combustion in such a way as to minimise vibration and noise, effectively by shaping the way the cylinder pressure rises, as well as reducing emissions, better fuel economy and higher performance as if the system raises the fuels octane rating. The whole engine is designed round the system and a lot of hard work ensures all the different factors work in harmony, from the computer synchronised high pressure pumps to the crystal operated injectors that give a sequence of perfectly formed fuel pulses.

An experimental race vehicle recieves the new 5.0, light and strong with a tuning potential well above 600bhp.

 

The technology has near magical control, when you hit the start button the engine will synchronise, analyse the current air and coolant temperature, check the oil level and temperature, check all the sensors are working, set the fuel pressure on the twin double-acting high pressure pumps, check and adjust throttle angle, set all four cam positions, charge up the ignition coils and the 160 volt injector control circuit and be ready to fire the first cylinder within one revolution of the engine.

And it’s not just the engine that makes for a stunning drive; the gearbox is a lighter yet stronger version of the ZF 6 speed which works in a detailed and complex harmony with the engine, exchanging data and requests in a high speed electronic conference. For instance – when changing gear the gearbox asks the engine to adjust power to balance the kinetic energy left in the drive train and so removing any cause for a jolt or surge, it all happens in a fraction of a second, all for your driving pleasure.

It’s all very impressive stuff and a million miles away from the possibilities available nearly 20 years ago when the design of the last V8 started. The sheer volume of work that goes into the new engine merits a celebration: so for the privileged few of you who get to drive one of these wonderful cars, please take a moment to look under the bonnet, a lot has gone into that modest space.

Twin Turbo W12 vs Supercharged V8 vs 1.6 diesel estate, oh yeah!

Slightly odd Supersport group test

Both Super and Sporty

The ‘Supersport(s)’ label is shared between two of the worlds most powerful luxury cars, both Bentley and Jaguar field ultra fast chariots with force fed V engines. But whilst the Bentley is a stripped down version of its much acclaimed two seat Grand Tourer, the Jaguar is a full fat version of its four seater limo. Two very different markets, two very different cars, but one very good excuse to go thrashing fast cars round the fabulous Millbrook test tracks. Oh I’ve gone all misty eyed just thinking about it. But this is no ordinary ‘journo thrashes a fast car’ type article, oh no, there is an angle that may enlighten…
The Bentley Supersports

Just walking up to the truly magnificent Bentley Continental GT Supersports is an occasion. As I get closer details start revealing themselves, there are no less than four radiator grilles plus two elongated bonnet vents which all collude to give the impression of a barely contained massive powerhouse under the hood. The huge alloy wheels, polished to within an inch of their lives, do nothing to conceal the equally huge cross drilled brake discs and shiny black callipers with Bentley scripted in elegant white lettering. Everything about it spells power, pure and simple.
Bore quilt than a blanket factory

Inside is furnished with the obligatory herd of dead cows but with the addition of box quilted fabric inserts in the door cards and seat centres, this combined with the beautifully crafted and very usable knobs and leavers with polished and machined metals gives a feeling of a classic luxury aircraft. Maybe I should have worn a flying jacket for this one.
A knob, possibly the best knob, but still a knob.

Firing up the mighty W12 twin turbo engine is disappointingly undramatic, it just starts immediately and settles into a refined hum, surely this sort of machine should burst into life and crackle into a snarling and lumpy idle? OK, maybe that’s just me then. Being primarily a luxury car refinement is still prominent, but as the sporting variant the exhaust has been allowed a bit more freedom, the suspension is a touch firmer, its just over 100kg lighter and generally the driver feels more connected to the road. Which is nice.
Obviously with 630PS on tap from the 6 litre twin turbo W12 performance is brisk, in fact the 0-60 dash takes 3.7 seconds according to the spec sheet, but its delivered in a refined and constant wave of thrust as 800Nm of torque sweeps from a mere 1700rpm up to 5600rpm in an artificially constant level. This smoothness can be a bit deceptive, with the speed flooding in almost unnoticed. The stability control works with the 4×4 drive system delivering 60% of the thrust to the rear and allowing a tantalising amount of over steer drift when powering out of corners.
As an experiment I set it up for a long sweeping corner with a little over steer, then floored the accelerator pedal (can’t call it a throttle pedal any more as it
Arguably another knob.
isn’t directly connected to the throttles) to see what happens. Doing this in a 600bhp car a few years ago would have resulted in instant death as the back wheels spin into oblivion and the car pirouettes into the scenery, no such drama with modern cars as the stability control adjusts engine power as well as brake balance (yes it applies the brakes when you accelerate in a corner) left and right to keep the car pointing in what it thinks is the desired direction. All very clever, and essential if you are going to let ordinary members of the public loose in cars with twice the power of an original Countach! That’s why pretty much every modern car has some form of stability control, as an example going back a few years the Sierra Cosworth had a reputation of being a bit to powerful and wild, but that only had 204bhp which is less than an Audi diesel estate. How times have changed. Anyway, back to the Bentley which is still balanced on the power round that long corner…
When pushing hard the body roll is noticeable but controlled, you can feel the weight but it feels much less than the 2240kg that this ‘lightweight’ version of the Continental has. But it’s on the straights that the flying B excels, even on the damp Millbrook test track it rockets forward with unrelenting pace, luckily the massive ceramic brakes haul the speed down with even greater force, a testament to the amazing capabilities of the Pirelli 275/35ZR20 tyres. Interestingly the rear track width has been widened by two inches to improve handling, I say interesting because this now makes both the front and rear track near identical to the standard Jaguar XJ, strangely I never thought of the standard Continental GT as being a narrow car…
The last part of the stunning Millbrook ‘Alpine’ route, which I am sure used to be simply called the ‘Hill’ route before it featured in a James Bond film, is a little jump simulating a hump backed bridge. Actually it is not supposed to be a jump, drivers are supposed to slow down, but as the multitude of sump scars in the tarmac attest temptation to play can be irresistible. Anyway, the Bentley landed with minimal damage and carried on its way, ahem.
As I departed that circuit and drove gently back to the base camp situated in the middle of the complex of tracks and circuits the refined aspect of the car showed through, wafting me through roundabouts and junctions, pulling away on wet concrete T junctions with absolutely no drama, all in all a very usable and impressive car
Suportive seats, responsive controls and epic power = my Bentley of choice.
indeed. In another decade it would have been called a supercar, but in this moment it is just a blindingly fast big GT with epic presence.
Jaguar XJ Supersport

Stepping from the glitz of the Bentley, the stylish Jaguar feels almost minimalist with that wonderful thin sweeping arc of dark wood traversing the dash and door tops, and just two air vents to break up the lines, with the digital dash sunk deep into the binnacle.
Stylish interior, not sure I would choose grey though...

But here’s the thing; it is because I was just in the Bentley that the Jag looks Spartan, if I had just been driving a ‘normal’ car would it feel as empty?
And this is a crucial point, everything is relative, particularly in something as subjective as a road test. It’s all about reference points, it’s all very well for a motoring hack like me to go swanning around in super-fast luxo cars all day and say one has slightly better on the limit handling, but this is meaningless to anyone who doesn’t drive these cars on private test tracks.
So for this group test I brought in a bit of a wild card, possibly a joker, but in any case a dose of normality. The third car in this group test is the very capable Skoda Superb, the estate version, with a 1.6 diesel.
This is what normality looks like.

Now at this point you might think I have lost the plot, and obviously you might have a good point, but bare with me and hopefully things will start to make sense. No guarantees though.
A foot longer than the Bentley, but more elegant somehow.

Back to the Jaguar XJ Supersport, a totally different type of car to the Bentley with a full set of luxo seats and four zone climate control. The ‘sports’ aspect comes from the optional active differential and the supercharged 5.0 V8 engine. Pressing the start button breathes life into the surprisingly ecological recycled aluminium block, indeed it is amongst the smallest of the big engines (such as the Mercedes 6.3, the above mentioned Bentley 6.0 etc.) but punches well above its weight. Again this is a trend we will see more and more of, where manufacturers use smaller engines with more boost to deliver even higher performance levels than their older big engines, the VW Tsi uses a 1.4 to give 170bhp as an example.
Refinement is a Jaguar speciality and the car effortlessly glides away, as the speed rises the only thing that spoils the ride is the low profile tyres, a problem that infects far too many cars these days.
But the Mr Nice-guy pretence is dropped as soon as the big Jag hits the test track, flooring the loud pedal engages warp drive which turns the swooping hill roads into a high speed roller coaster and the engine note is transformed into a gruff roar by the exhaust muffler bypass valves and a very cunning device that brings a subtle sample of the superb intake noise into the cabin.
In gear acceleration on a real road feels very similar to the Bentley, the 6 speed gearbox has very swift and precise shifts (both cars use the same ZF 6 speed box) but going fast into corners the Jag seems to carry more speed with less roll and greater composure. This is not surprising when you consider that this short wheel base XJ (still a foot longer than the Bentley) weighs in at 1892Kg, that’s over 300kg less than the Bentley despite being bigger with more seats and toys.
There are two reasons for this massive weight difference, first is Jaguar’s use of an aluminium shell, a technology they first used with on the old XJ and refined on the XK. Many manufacturers have looked at ally shells and of course Audi use them on some cars, but production challenges make it a much more expensive process and requires a lot of specialist knowledge to get right. On premium cars manufacturers can sometimes pass on the extra cost, but for mid range cars it is still not commercially viable which is probably why Jaguar still use a steel shell for their XF.
But the world is changing, and now fuel consumption (and therefore CO2 emission) is under scrutiny. This may tip the balance in favour of ally shells, just look at the CO2 figures for the Bentley (388g/km) and the Jaguar (289g/km), that’s a huge difference. As laws come in that will set ever tightening limits on CO2 even supercar manufacturers will have to take action.
The second reason for the weight difference is because the Bentley has four wheel drive, so has an extra transfer box, front prop shaft, front diff and half shafts. You might be thinking that this is unnecessary baggage for a GT car, but consider this: much of Canada, Russia, Scandinavia and the new markets in China spend a fair chunk of the year covered in snow where a rear wheel drive car will struggle to get off the drive way, they also have a lot of new rich who want a car they can be seen out in, you do the maths. Right, back to the track.
It’s remarkable how similar two very different cars can feel when being thrashed round a track, both have more than enough grunt to power up the very steep twisty hills of Millbrook and fling the occupants over the crest at break neck speed. But pulling away at that damp concrete T junction in the Jag highlights the big advantage the Bentley has with its 4WD, the rear wheel drive Jaguar limits wheel spin as it maximises grip from just two wheels, and whilst there is no drama pulling away there is also less acceleration. I suspect this is why there is such a big difference in the 0-60 times with Bentley smashing it in 3.7 seconds and the Jaguar smartly stepping forward in 4.7.
Both these cars are quick, in slightly different ways, but how quick are they in real terms? And for that matter how quick is quick anyway? To find out I drove exactly the same route in the Skoda estate diesel. The first thing I notice is the noise, the estate is very good for noise in its class, but having just complained about road noise from the Supersports low profile tyres I take it all back compared to the road noise at motorway speeds from a normal car.
As I head onto the first section of track I accelerate, but nothing happens. Two things are worth noting, firstly in all three cars I started this bit at about 70mph, in a normal car flooring the accelerator at 70 will obviously result in only mild acceleration, but when you have become accustomed to the Bentley or Jaguar you automatically expect neck snapping acceleration at this speed. Secondly this section of road is up hill, in the other two cars I hadn’t even noticed it was up hill, in the normal car I am considering changing down just to keep the speed up.
After a few tight corners to get the tyres up to temperature I hit the long left hander, in the other two cars I went in slow, about 60mph, and powered out to asses how they handled hard acceleration in corners. In the normal car I struggled to get it round at all at 60mph, let alone accelerate. It was in fact a fairly tight corner, but the big cars just grabbed hold and got on with it in a way that a normal car could never do.
A very good car made a useful referance point.

Through the twisty bits I had noticed the Bentley had a bit of body roll, at a lower speed in the normal car changing direction mid corner resulted in a lurch rather than roll and enough tilt to worry about scraping the mirrors in the road, turns out that ‘bit of body roll’ was actually blooming impressive at that speed, and the fact that the Jag had even less turns out to be stunning. Again, totally different worlds.
Then there is the ability to be pushed hard all day, the hill route is relatively short, just a few miles, so the big cars had barely warmed up by the time it was over. By contrast the normal car was loosing power (modern diesels wind the power down when the intercooler or oil gets hot to preserve longevity) and the brakes just started to fade. This is no bad reflection on the car, no one in their right mind would drive a 1.6 diesel estate that hard for any length of time, it’s just silly and on anything other than a private test track it’s suicidal.
I think it’s important to get a sense of perspective, in order to better understand what is being looked at, I learned a lot about the Jaguar and Bentley by driving a Skoda Estate. Skoda also very kindly let me loose in their rather excellent VRS which is undoubtedly a fast car, in a different class of performance to the normal estate car, but again several classes behind the big boys.

All this goes to show the effectiveness of the Bentley and Jaguar suspension, brakes, control system, engine and transmissions. And indeed that of any of the very high performance cars about these days. There is a lot more engineering in one of those, and when I see the price tag the size of a house I can’t help but think that actually that’s not bad value. These cars are not just good, they are amazing.